Blog Archives

Flat feet- Children’s feet | The Podiatrist and yourfeetnz

 

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Children with flat feet, also called pes planus, have a flattening of the arch during standing and walking.

Flat foot is normal in infants and young children. At this age, in the absence of any associated symptoms, treatment is highly debatable.

Flat foot usually naturally corrects itself as muscles strengthen and soft tissues stiffen. The height of the arch in the foot increases with age until about 9 years. The problem is when flat foot persists, spontaneously occurs in older children or later in life, or is associated with pain and disability.

Flat feet can be flexible or rigid, painful or painless and associated with a tightness of the calf muscles (Achilles tendon). The majority of flat feet are painless, but when pain is present it is usually during weight-bearing activities such as walking and running. The pain can be in the sole of the foot, the ankle, or non-specific pain all around the foot area.

 

What causes flat feet?

A complex and sophisticated interaction of bones, ligaments, muscles and nerves within and above the foot defines its anatomy and function. Anything that interrupts the integrity of these structures leading to a collapsed arch can cause symptomatic flat feet.

Examination of the foot begins with an examination of the entire child, because the flat foot may have an underlying cause.

Flat foot can also originate from unusual anatomy such as a tarsal coalition (bones joined together), ligament or muscle damage, restricted ankle movement, outward rotated lower legs, and knock knees (where the legs bow inwards at the knee). Obesity can result in collapse of the arches by the increased load on the foot. If knock knees also develop, the middle of the foot will tend to turn out (abduct). The foot will point outwards when walking, instead of straight ahead, which is inefficient and can cause early fatigue.

Footwear in early childhood has been thought to cause flat foot. It is likely that children who wear shoes, are not physically active and have flat feet will have decreased muscle activation in their feet and thus impaired foot function and weakness.

Some older children and adolescents develop flat feet in the absence of any disorder or associated factors.

 

Does flat foot need to be treated?

Flat feet require treatment only if clearly associated with pain or decreased function. Managing the underlying cause or disease is of highest priority; just treating the symptoms should be secondary.

If flat foot is observed in a child who is overweight and has knock knees, or in a child with excess joint flexibility and poor footwear, each of these factors could be contributing to the symptoms, and each should be addressed.

If a child’s quality of life is affected by how their feet look, feel or function, then the associated issues should be addressed.

For any foot problems, contact The Podiatrist.

http://www.thepodiatrist.co.nz

http://www.kidsnmotion.co.nz

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5 quick and easy tips to healthy feet and legs | The Podiatrist and yourfeetnz

one pair has to last a lifetime

There are many causes of leg pain right from muscle cramps and inflammation of tendons to arthritis, varicose veins and nerve damage. Leg pain due to muscle strain following an injury or wearing tight shoes for a long time can be prevented by following few simple tips:

  1. Stretch the leg muscle: One of the most effective ways to prevent leg pain due to a sudden muscle twist or cramp is to stretch the muscle. This not only improves blood flow to the injured muscle but it also helps in reducing muscle tension thereby relieving muscle soreness.
  2. Take a warm shower: If you suffer from leg pain, then take a warm shower to relax the muscles. If taking a bath is not feasible, then placing a heating pad on the affected areas can also help. A heat pack works best if the pain is due to a previous injury as it not only relaxes blood vessels but also improves blood circulation, alleviating leg pain.
  3. Wear a proper fitting athletic shoe: Most people fail to choose the right fitting shoe, which is one of the common causes of leg and heel pain. To get the right fit, determine the shape of your foot using the ‘wet test’. For this, step out of the shower onto a surface that will show your footprint, like a brown paper bag. If you have a flat foot, you will see an impression of your whole foot on the paper. If you have a high arch, you will only see the ball and heel of your foot. When shopping, look for athletic shoes that match your particular foot pattern.
  4. Choose the right sports shoe: Not many people are aware that different types of shoes are specially designed to meet your sports requirement. Did you know running long distances in court-style sneakers can contribute to shin splints? It is important to choose the shoes according to your sport or fitness routine.
  5. Go slow if you are a beginner at the gym: One of the common mistakes that most people commit is to overexert on the first day of the gym, which not only exerts pressure on the knee but also causes muscle soreness and leg pain. The key to preventing leg pain and sticking to your workout routine is to build your fitness level slowly. You can start off with less strenuous workouts and then gradually increase the duration, intensity, and frequency of your exercise regimen.

For any foot problems, contact The Podiatrist.

http://www.thepodiatrist.co.nz

 

Shopping for School Shoes | The Podiatrist and yourfeetnz

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  1. To avoid in-store arguments, parents and children should discuss in advance the style and brand of shoes they want to look for.
  1. Remember that a good fit is more important than the size of the footwear. A good fit allows for a 1/2” of space between the end of the toes and the end of shoe. Shop at retailers who provide a fit specialist for extra assistance.
  1. Avoid hand-me-down shoes; improperly fitted shoes can support feet in unhealthy positions.

4. Avoid shopping online or estimating a child’s shoe size.

  1. Remember that not all shoes of the same size fit alike. While foot measurement is a starting point, how the shoes fit is more important.
  1. Match the shape of the shoe to the shape of the foot.
  1. Remember that while a low arch is normal in young children, in children older than age seven, the lower the arch the more important it is to have shoes with good support. Look for a firm heel counter and stiffness when trying to twist shoes lengthwise.
  2. If a child wears orthotics, select shoes with removable foot beds and try the shoes on with the orthotics in place.
  1. Remember that price is not necessarily commensurate with quality. If price is a consideration, last year’s models can offer all the features needed at a discounted price.
  1. Check the fit on your child’s shoes on a regular basis as children’s feet grow at irregular rates.

For more information, or if you have any questions, contact The Podiatrist

http://www.thepodiatrist.co.nz

Some tips to help prevent your child from getting painful foot problem | The Podiatrist and yourfeetnz

An ingrown toenail can very very painful

Many kids hide their ingrown toenails from their parents, even though the condition can cause significant pain. An ingrown nail can break the skin and lead to dangerous infections.

The Podiatrist says that tight shoes, tight socks and incorrect nail trimming are the most common causes. In others, the children may inherit the tendency for nails to curve.
Teach children how to trim their toenails properly. Trim toenails in a fairly straight line, and don’t cut them too short.

Make sure children’s shoes fit. Shoe width is more important than length. Make sure the widest part of the shoe matches the widest part of your child’s foot.

If a child develops a painful ingrown toenail, reduce the inflammation by soaking the child’s foot in room-temperature water and gently massaging the side of the nail fold.

The only proper way to treat a child’s ingrown toenail is with a visit to The Podiatrist.
Parents should not try to dig the nail out or cut it off. These dangerous “bathroom surgeries” carry a high risk of infection.

For all your child’s foot care needs, visit The Podiatrist.

http://www.thepodatrist.co.nz
http://www.kidsnmotion.co.nz

Are your shoes hurting your feet? | The Podiatrist and yourfeetnz

high heeled shoes are bad for runners

A recent study from the Institute for Preventive Foot Health found that 78 percent of adults have experienced foot trouble at one time or another, according to Consumer Reports.

Often the source of the problem is improperly fitting shoes. The biggest shoe mistakes: too tight, too high-heeled or too floppy. The good news, of course, is that those are easy problems to fix.
By far, Consumer Reports notes, the most common problem is simply choosing the wrong size of shoe. One study that actually measured people’s feet revealed shoes that were either a half size too large or small; 12 percent were off by 1½ sizes or more.

How does that happen? Your shoe size can change with age. As we get older, the soles of our feet lose padding, and ligaments and tendons lose elasticity and lengthen. Weight gain or pregnancy can also cause feet to widen. Experts have estimated that people older than 40 can actually gain half a shoe size every 10 years.

A study on footwear choices among older people found that 8 out of 10 wore shoes that were narrower than their feet, and more than four out of 10 wore shoes with a smaller total area than their foot.
Shoes that fit too loosely can also be problematic. They can create friction when feet slide around as you walk and put you at an increased risk of tripping on carpets or stairs. Shoes with no backs at all, like flip-flops and mules, can force you to take shorter, more irregular strides.

Even if the shoe fits, it can still hurt you. These styles are especially likely to cause foot pain:

• Shoes with small or pointy toe boxes. They force your big toe inward and don’t leave enough room for your other toes. The most common consequence is a painful lump of bone on the inside of the foot called hallux valgus, better known as a bunion. The condition affects almost 1 in 4 adults and, if painful enough, can require corrective surgery. Jammed against a tight toe box, the other four toes can develop a condition called hammer toes, a shortening of the first joint that causes each toe to curl up instead of lying flat – even when you’re barefoot.

• High heels. They can cause the Achilles tendon in the ankle to contract and shorten, which can trigger plantar fasciitis (an inflammation of the soles) and cause neuromas, painful nerve growths on the ball of the foot.

• Thin soles. Ballet flats and other shoes with little padding can also cause plantar fasciitis because the lack of proper cushioning can inflame the balls of your feet.

To avoid shoe-induced foot problems, Consumer Reports recommends getting the right fit in the first place. Measure your feet regularly. The best time is at the end of the day when they have expanded to the max. Other tips to consider:

• Try shoes on both of your feet. Most of us have one foot that is larger than the other. Your shoes should fit the larger foot.

• Stay away from shoes with narrow toe boxes. That’s especially true if you have already started to develop bunions or hammer toes.

• Be careful when buying shoes online. If in doubt, order shoes in more than one size. Many companies offer free returns, so your only investment is the time it takes to drop your rejects into the mail.

• Go low with heels. Stick to heels that are 2ø inches or lower. If you like to wear higher heels for special occasions, bring them to the event in a bag, put them on at the door and remove them the minute you leave.

Make an appointment with The Podiatrist today for all your foot care need.

http://www.thepodiatrist.co.nz

YourFeetNZ- The Podiatrist |Tips for purchasing footwear for school

You remember preparing for your first day of school; the shopping, in particular shoe shopping, and the wonder of a pair of brand new sneakers, shoes or even sandals.  Somehow, the experience is very different when, as a parent, you have to be concerned about size and budget, instead of style and colour as your child!

Since parents tend to take advantage of back to school sales, health experts advise that you have to be careful about which shoes and school bags are bought. Shopping for new school shoes is a chore that parents everywhere share, as they prepare their children for school for the first time, or on their return from holidays

Children spend around 30-45 hours a week in their school shoes, or more than 15,000 hours during their school years, so it’s vital that they’re fitted properly. In the first 11 years of a child’s life, feet may grow through approximately 17 shoe sizes, up until they’re 18 years of age. Ill-fitting shoes can lead to problems in adulthood, such as ingrown toenails, corns and bunions, which may even require surgery later in life.

Important Purchasing Advice

• Always have your child’s feet measured before you buy shoes. Children’s feet grow quickly, so you shouldn’t rely on a previous measurement.

• Opt for new shoes, once financially possible, instead of accepting hand-me-downs. That will help ensure a better fit and avoid spreading germs, such as the fungus that causes athlete’s foot.

• Inspect the heels of your child’s shoes for uneven wear, which may indicate a foot problem.

• Don’t buy shoes that aren’t comfortable. There should be no reason to “break in” a new pair of shoes.

It’s no surprise that kids want to be like other kids and wear what their friends are wearing. Even in pre-school, style is important. Still, from mom and dad’s point of view, there is more to shoes than looking good.

These tips will explain why:

• Shoes need to be flexible and able to sustain extreme activity. They should also provide support and cushioning and be breathable, to allow body heat and moisture to escape.

• However, a bad fit can negate all the benefits of a good shoe, so finding the right size is essential. Since shoe sizes tend to vary by manufacturer, an accurate fit can only be assured once the foot is inside the shoe.

• A tip for making sure that the shoe size fits, is measuring the distance between the second toe and the end of the shoe. The second toe is usually the longest.

• Have your child walk around in the shoes to make sure that they don’t hit the ankle bones or have seams that rub against the foot.

• Though it may seem children quickly outgrow their shoes, buying shoes that are too big isn’t a good idea. A loose fit can cause painful calluses and sores, because there is too much movement in the shoe. On the other hand, shoes that are too small can cause an abnormal gait that can misalign growing bones in the feet.

It may be time to get a new pair of shoes if your child begins to complain about shoes that are uncomfortable; be aware, however, that trend conscious youngsters have been known to “need” new shoes because of what the others kids are wearing. Shoes can put a dent in any household budget, so make sure that the shoes fit when you buy them, and before you buy a bigger pair of shoes.

Buy shoes at the end of the day

While you might decide to head out bright and early to get your child’s shoes fitted, bear in mind that it’s best to go during late afternoon. This is because children’s feet often get a little more swollen by the end of the day. That way, you’ll get school shoes fitted when your child’s feet are at their biggest.

Other things to look out for

While you might usually expect to only think about school shoes and your kids’ feet once a year, here’s a checklist of things to look out for, and see a podiatrist/foot health practitioner if necessary:

• Children complaining of pain in the feet, heel, knees or legs

• Unexplained tripping and falling (if it happens regularly)

• Uneven shoe wear, or one shoe that wears down before the other

• Skin or toenail irritation.

Do share this information with your kids who are old enough to appreciate the advice to minimise peer pressure, and ultimately your stress levels … Happy shopping!

Your feet mirror your general health… cherish them!

There is a great range of summer sandals ideal for school and casual wear available from Scooters.

www.thepodiatrist.co.nz

http://www.scooters.net.nz

Shoes that make the grade

Children’s feet change with age. Shoe and sock sizes may change every few months as a child’s feet grow.

  • Shoes that don’t fit properly can aggravate the feet. Always measure a child’s feet before buying shoes, and watch for signs of irritation.
  • Never hand down footwear. Just because a shoe size fits one child comfortably doesn’t mean it will fit another the same way. Also, sharing shoes can spread fungi like athlete’s foot and nail fungus.
  • Examine the heels. Children may wear through the heels of shoes quicker than outgrowing shoes themselves. Uneven heel wear can indicate a foot problem that should be checked by a podiatrist.
  • Take your child shoe shopping. Every shoe fits differently. Letting a child have a say in the shoe buying process promotes healthy foot habits down the road.
  • Always buy for the larger foot. Feet are seldom precisely the same size.
  • Buy shoes that do not need a “break-in” period. Shoes should be comfortable immediately. Also make sure to have your child try on shoes with socks or tights, if that’s how they’ll be worn.
  • Consider closed toe shoes. Covering the child’s toes allows for more protection.

Do Your Child’s Shoes “Make The Grade?”

  • Look for a stiff heel. Press on both sides of the heel counter. It shouldn’t collapse.
  • Check toe flexibility. The shoe should bend with your child’s toes. It shouldn’t be too stiff or bend too much in the toe box area.
  • Select a shoe with a rigid middle. Does your shoe twist? Your shoe should never twist in the middle.
  • Are the shoes secure on the foot? Laces or Velcro are best to hold the foot in place.

Additional Advice for Parents

  • Foot problems noticed at birth will not disappear by themselves. Do not wait until children get older to fix a problem. Foot problems in youths can lead to create problems down the road.
  • Get your child checked by The Podiatrist. A lack of complaint by a youngster is not a reliable sign that there is no problem. The bones of growing feet are so flexible that they can be twisted and distorted without the child being aware of it.
  • Walking is the best of all foot exercises. Observe your child’s walking patterns. Does your child have gait abnormalities? Correct the problem before it becomes a bigger issue.
  • Going barefoot is a healthy activity for children under the right conditions. However, walking barefoot on dirty pavement can expose children’s feet to the dangers of infection through accidental cuts and to severe contusions, sprains or fractures. Plantar warts, a virus on the sole of the foot, can also be contracted.

Children’s sports-related injuries are on the rise. A child’s visit to The Podiatrist can help determine any concerns there may be regarding the child participating in specific sports and help identify the activities that may be best suited for the individual child.

Visit The Podiatrist for any concerns you may have.

http://www.thepodiatrist.co.nz

http://www.kidsnmotion.co.nz

Your foot size may change during pregnancy

 

When was the last time you had your feet measured? If you can’t quite remember, your so-called tried-and-true shoes may have your feet crying out for a different size.

That’s right, according to a recent survey conducted by the American Podiatric Medical Association (APMA), 40 percent of male and female respondents couldn’t remember the last time their feet were measured. Additionally, 65 percent of American women between the ages of 18 and 49 haven’t had their feet measured within the last five years — meaning they are probably trekking around in shoes that don’t fit.

And since the survey also reports that 84 percent of both male and female respondents chose comfort over style when buying non-athletic shoes, its surprising that foot measurements have gone by the wayside.

Many people don’t realize that shoe size can change with age, from manufacturer to manufacturer and for many women during pregnancy. Not to mention, an ill-fitting shoe can wreak havoc on your feet. With the possibility of painful blisters and unsightly corns to unnerving neuromas and irritating bunions, there’s nothing like finding a shoe with the perfect fit.

Here are a few tips that will help you put your best foot forward:

* It’s important to remember that when you’re getting fitted for a new shoe, you should wait until later in the day because your feet swell throughout the afternoon. And be sure to stand when your feet are being measured or fitted.

* Don’t be surprised if your feet aren’t the same size. If you have this problem, try to buy for the larger foot.

* You wouldn’t buy a car without a test drive, so the same rule should apply to your shoes. Always try on both shoes, and walk around the store, preferably on a hard surface.

* Stay away from shoes that require a “break-in” period. Properly fitting shoes should be comfortable immediately.

* Conduct a “dress rehearsal.” Try on shoes while you are wearing the same type of socks or stockings you expect to wear with the shoes.

For more information and guidelines on caring for your feet see The Podiatrist.

http://www.thepodiatrist.co.nz

Children’s Feet Require Your Special Attention

Patients often have questions for The Podiatrist if they notice something unusual about their child’s feet or the way the child walks or runs. For many years, the most common pediatric foot problem seen in doctors’ offices has been in-toeing, especially whenever the child is observed while running.

Let’s briefly discuss several of the more common paediatric foot conditions that result in the feet turning inwards, as well as how these conditions can (and should) be managed by The Podiatrist.

A case relating to paediatric in-toeing often begins when the parent reports an abnormal appearance of the child’s foot, an awkward gait or a “clumsiness,” with a tendency to trip or fall. A structural and biomechanical examination of the lower extremities – including watching the child walk – will allow for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment recommendations. In-toeing is generally caused by the following three conditions, whose corrective timing and treatment considerations vary.

Tibial Torsion

Tibial torsion is a common condition in which the tibia has not completed its external rotation to normal adult position (resulting, therefore, in a lack of normal torsion). The key to diagnosis is the closed-chain postural evaluation. On standing examination, the child’s knees face forward while the ankles and feet turn inward.

The natural history of tibial torsion is a gradual normalization with growth and use of the lower leg muscles. Most cases resolve by 2 years of age, but rotation values continue to increase an average of 1.5 degrees a year up to age 6. By age 7, the vast majority of children have achieved normal adult position.There is a familial tendency among those who fail to reach normal values. When tibial torsion persists, compensatory pronation commonly develops.

Suggested Care:

Parents need to be involved in the care of their children. Train parents to frequently stretch the medial soft tissues of their child’s lower leg. Show them how to strengthen the peroneal muscles (using a home exercise program and an extremity rehab system) when the child is old enough to cooperate sufficiently.

In addition, recommend buying shoes for the child that have flexible soles and good support to decrease pronation stresses. In cases of hyperpronation, individually designed paediatric orthotics should be considered. Finally, recommend beneficial activities and sports that emphasize lower-leg training and coordination (such as soccer)

Femoral Torsion

Femoral torsion is an inward (medial) rotation of the entire lower leg that begins at the neck of the femur. It is a relatively common childhood condition, one which can be recognized by the medial facing of the knee as well as the ankle and foot. With walking, more than 90 percent will resolve by the 8th year.

Any persistence is thought to be due to ligament laxity of the hip joint capsule. In such cases, physical examination will find excessive passive internal hip rotation. Lumbar hyperlordosis, genu recurvatum, and hyperpronation are frequently associated.

 

Suggested Care:

Begin strengthening the external rotator muscles and extensors of the hip by using an extremity rehab system. Parents can passively stretch the hips into external rotation, and the child should be encouraged to sit cross-legged.

Let parents know that shoes with good support are very important. When hyperpronation is noted, individually designed stabilizing orthotics are indicated to prevent further problems. Also, encourage physical activities such as ballet, skating and bike riding – all of which tend to engage the external rotator musculature of the hips.

Metatarsus Adductus

Metatarsus adductus (also known as a “hooked foot”) is a contracture of the medial soft tissues of the foot. This condition has been found to be present in 6 percent of schoolchildren. On examination, the in-toeing can be passively stretched to normal, since there is no bony abnormality associated.

More than 90 percent of infants with this condition will resolve by the age of 18 months. When more than mild adduction persists beyond 1 year of age, a consultation with The Podiatrist or orthopedic surgeon for consideration of casting is appropriate. However, casting and special foot braces are seldom necessary.

Suggested Care:

Instruct parents to massage and stretch the medial soft tissues of the infant’s foot for several minutes following each diaper change. Frequent stretching is the key. Consider an evaluation by a specialist if significant adduction persists beyond 1 year of age, or if the deformity feels fixed and cannot be temporarily reduced with gentle stretching. Orthotics are needed only if mild adduction continues beyond age 7.

Footwear: What to Look for Developing feet require proper footwear. Whenever safety and comfort allow, going barefoot stimulates proprioceptors and encourages muscular coordination and strength. Children’s shoes should have flexible soles to allow for proper foot-joint movement (thick rubber soles may hamper and confine).

Proper shoe sizing and fit are critical, since the developing bones are soft and malleable. Tight, constricting shoes will interfere with normal growth and may result in deformity. Frequent evaluation of shoe size and fit (palpate the child’s foot for pressure points while they are standing with shoes on) is an important concept for parents.

When to Recommend Orthotics

As described above, the majority of paediatric foot problems will resolve with normal childhood activities, exercise and proper footwear. Orthotics are seldom needed in the early years of growth. If excessive pronation associated with in-toeing is seen to persist beyond the age of 7 or 8, or is responding poorly to home care interventions, individually designed stabilizing orthotics are appropriate.

The additional corrective support they provide will encourage normal development while preventing further deformity and reducing abnormal kinetic-chain stresses on the pelvis and spine during formative years. Parents will need to be educated to bring their child in for regular evaluations of orthotic fit and function, since children’s feet can rapidly outgrow any orthotic.

Serving the Next Generation of Patients

Parents need reassurance and appropriate recommendations when they bring in a child with a “foot problem.” In particular, in-toeing can raise concerns in parents and may be frustrating to athletically oriented children. Most of the common causes of in-toeing in children will resolve during normal growth and development, needing only home-care recommendations and monitoring by the family’s chiropractor.

As always, the child’s developing spine should be evaluated and appropriate Podiatic care is recommended. Specific home exercises may hasten the maturation and coordination of the support muscles. In some cases, paediatric orthotics may be needed to provide additional corrective stimulus.

Should you have any questions or concerns, seek professional advice before starting any homecare.

For more information, contact The Podiatrist

www.thepodiatrist.co.nz

www.kidsnmotion.co.nz

 

How to Buy Children’s Shoes

A well-made shoe that fits right is not only more comfortable for your children, but can help them avoid injury. Do you know what features you should look for in your child’s footwear?

A pair of well-made shoes can keep children safe from foot problems such as sprains and strains, both in class and on the playground

Here are some tips for how to buy children’s shoes.

  • Children’s feet change with age. Shoe and sock size may change every few months as a child’s feet grow. Shoes that don’t fit      properly can aggravate the feet. Always measure a child’s feet before buying shoes, and watch for signs of irritation.
  • Never hand down footwear. Just because a shoe size fits one child comfortably doesn’t mean it will fit another the same way. Also, sharing shoes can spread fungi like athlete’s foot and nail fungus.
  • Examine the heels. Children may wear through the heels of shoes quicker than outgrowing shoes themselves. Uneven heel wear can indicate a foot problem that should be checked by a podiatrist.
  • Take your child shoe shopping. Every shoe fits differently. Letting a child have a say in the shoe buying process promotes healthy foot habits down the road.
  • Always buy for the larger foot. Feet are seldom precisely the same size. Buy shoes that do not need a “break-in” period. Shoes should be comfortable immediately. Also make sure to have your child try on shoes with socks or tights, if that’s how they’ll be worn

Tips for Buying Children’s Athletic Footwear.

A child’s court shoe:

  • should support both sides of the foot, due to the quick lateral movements and weight shifts in court sports; and
  • provide a flexible sole for fast changes of direction.

A child’s running shoe:

  • should provide maximum shock absorption to help runners avoid ailments such as shin splints and knee pain; and
  • control the way your child’s heel strikes the ground, so the rest of the foot can fall correctly.

Athletic socks:

  • should be made of a natural/synthetic blend, as this helps “wick” away moisture best; and
  • not contain any large seams that can cause blisters or irritation.

Visit The Podiatrist if you have any questions.

www.thepodiatrist.co.nz

www.kidsnmotion.co.nz

www.scooters.net.nz